Yajurveda is the Veda of Karma. The meaning of Yaju would be Yajna, that is, the collection of mantras for performing Yajna is called Yajurveda. In this, information related to Havan and rituals is obtained. It is believed that the Yajurveda was composed after the Rigveda. According to the belief of Manusmriti, it was composed by a sage named Vayu. Since air is the symbol of movement, then there is primacy of movement in action. No action is possible without movement. In the Vedic period, performing Yagya was considered a kind of noble act. In the Yajurveda, the sage or priest who invokes the gods is known as “Adhvaryu”. “Adhvaryu” has special importance in the operation of Yagya and the profession related to Yagya.

The scholars of Vedas have given various meanings of Yajurveda –

  1. The mantras by which Yagya Karma is performed are the mantras of Yajurveda.
  2. Sentences ending with irregular letters are called Yajuh.

 That is, mantras written in prose style come in Yajurveda. Thus the collection of prose mantras is Yajuh.

Yajurveda basically provides knowledge about the benefits of Yagya. There is no living being who can get the result of action without giving motion to the body including the mind, life, air and senses. The creature is conscious with intelligence even though it is ignorant. That’s why the mention of the qualities and demerits of substances found in Rigveda has been given inspiration to bring them into life through action in Yajurveda.

yagya in yajurveda

Importance of Yajurveda

A detailed description of “Vedic rituals” is found in Yajurveda. We can understand the whole history of rituals through this. The description of all kinds of kram kand related to the life of the living being can be obtained through Yajurveda. There is also a complete description of different types of Yagya in it. All types of rituals, rituals etc related to Yagya have been explained in detail. We can know our tradition, religious activities, social rituals through this

Here the importance of different types of Yagya has been done keeping the interests in front. A detailed explanation of the words “Ashwamedh”, “Narmedh”, “Sarvamedh” etc. has also been given in this. This can also be called the spiritual meaning of these words. Like – “Medha” used in these mantras means for interest and not for “sacrifice”.

In Shukla Yurveda, where the mantras are in methodical style, then in Krishna Yajurveda, the mantras are presented in prose style. Like “Indray Swaha” or Agneya Swaha. With this type of style mantras can be easily read, spoken and understood.

Classification of Yajurveda

There are two main categories of Yajurveda.

  1. Shukla yajurveda
  2. Krishna Yajurveda
The two branches of the Śuklayajurveda are the Madhyandina and the Kaṇva.
There are four branches of the Krishna Yajurveda: the Taittiriya, the Maitreya, the Kathaka and the Kapisthalakatha.

Following are the differences between Shukla Yajurveda and Krishna Yajurveda:-

  • This Veda is divided into two sects. The name of the first sect is Brahma and the name of the second sect is Aditya.
  • The Brahma Sampradaya is related to the Krishna Yajurveda while the Aditya Sampradaya is related to the Shukla Yajurveda.
  • Shukla Yajurveda contains a collection of mantras for rituals performed for Amavashya, Purnima and Agnihotra, while Krishna Yajurveda contains a mixed form of method sentences, narratives and mantras.
  • The meaning of Shukla is Swet / white i.e. compilation of pure and holy mantras. Krishna means black means collection of impure mantras. (But here it is wrong to mean impure mantras with black. Here a mixture of Brahmin-ansh, ie method-sentence, narrative etc. along with mantras should be considered.)
  • The explanation of the mantras given in Shukla Yajurveda and the method of their use i.e. the way of presenting them has not been explained. Whereas in Krishna Yajurveda, along with mantras, their interpretation and method of use has also been explained.
  • Shukla Yajurveda is pure, holy and pure from the point of view of the subject. Whereas in Krishna Yajurveda, due to the mixture of prose-verse and Brahmin mantras, there would be some difficulty in understanding the mantras. Is.
  • The prevalence of mantras of Shukla Yajurveda is found more in North India and that of Krishna Yajurveda in South.

Shukla Yajurveda

There are 40 chapters in Shukla Yajurveda, but many scholars consider only the first 25 chapters as original, the later chapters are considered Prakshipta, that is, these chapters have been added later. Some scholars consider only 18 chapters of Yajurveda as fundamental, because in the later chapters there are many prose-verse mixed mantras which are different from the mantra-mode of Shukla Yajurveda.

Madhyandin branch of Shukla Yajurveda has 40 chapters, 303 anuvakas and 1975 mantras or kandikas. However, the Kanva branch has 40 chapters, 328 anuvakas and 2086 mantras or kandikas.

Karma has special importance in Yajurveda. Yagya comes in this action only. But in many places there are some such mantras which throw light on psychology, spiritual philosophy and environment etc. In general, the description of the Yajurveda is found in the description of the Kanva and the Mediterranean branches. The summary of total 40 chapters of Shukla Yajurveda is as follows:-

Chapter of Shukla Yajurveda


1st  Chapter

In this, the rituals of pure deeds have been said by God to humans. Apart from this, it has also been taught to renounce the faults and to perform Yagya and do charity for the purification of the soul.

2nd  Chapter

In the second chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, the means of Yajna are mentioned, how should the altar be made, what material should be used for Yajna, purification of soul and senses by the light of fire, enjoyment of pleasures, Purushorthsandhan, destruction of enemies, The knowledge of renunciation of malice, loyalty to God, good thoughts, conduct of truth, love for living beings etc. has been given.

3rd Chapter

In the third chapter, we find the description of Agnihotra Yagya and the nature and meaning of Agni, rendering of the nature of God, analysis of the meaning of Gayatri Mantra, description of Rudra form by Mahamrityunjaya Mantra etc.

4th Chapter

In this description is given about craftsmanship, sanctity of rain, company of scholars, rituals of yagya, attainment of enthusiasm, conduct of war, guns of fire and water, reincarnation statement, cultivation of divine intelligence, propagation of religion, consequences of stealing etc.

5th Chapter

In the fifth chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, the ritual of Yagya, its form, the accomplishment of Yagya by fire, the association of scholars, knowledge-attainment, the symptoms of yoga practice, the origin of the universe, the description of Prana-Apan Kirya, the qualities of the heroes, the attainment of salvation, Mention is made about the remedies etc. to get rid of bad company.

6th  Chapter

In this chapter, there is a mention of king and state functions, mutual relations of public and kings, Vishnu's supreme status, teacher-disciple relationship, characteristics of scholars, yagya-rituals, prayer to God, behavior of men and women, duties of parents and children, etc. Is.

7th Chapter

Reciprocal behavior of human beings, actions of the soul, relation of mind and soul, characteristics of a perfect yogi, master-servant behavior, protection of people by the judge, actions of the prince and councilors, preaching of the king, test of the commander, duty of the soldier, celibacy – Rituals of consumption, social relations between God and creatures etc.

8th  Chapter

In the eighth chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, there is a detailed description of the duties of a householder, king, people, chairman etc.

9th  Chapter

Description of Rajdharma

10th  Chapter

Responsibility of King and People

11th  Chapter

Description of worthy deeds to be done by the householder, the king, the priest, the assembly, the head of the army and the subjects

12th  Chapter

Description of the deeds of women, men, kings, subjects, farming, and reading etc. Preaching to control mind and speech.

13th  Chapter

Description of God, woman, man, and behavior skills.

14th  Chapter

Description of the beauty and qualities of spring weather etc.

15th  Chapter

Praise of air, life, God, and brave men.

16th  Chapter

Praise of Lord Rudra, and description of his qualities. Description of mantras used during Rudrabhishek.

17th  Chapter

Explanation of Surya, Megha, Gristhashram, and Mathematics and the knowledge of matter given by God.

18th  Chapter

The qualities and deeds of mathematics, king, People, teacher and disciple etc.

19th  Chapter

Description of substances like soma

20th  Chapter

Various parts of religion, qualities of a king, importance of charity, mutual discussion and consent etc., description of female qualities and growth of wealth etc.

21st  Chapter

Meaning of Varun, Agni, Scholar, Raja, Praja, Shilpa, Vani, Ghar, Ashwani etc. Description of the qualities of Ritu and "Hota".

22nd  Chapter

Description of age, growth, properties of fire, karma, yagya, Gayatri Mantra, and the purification of all substances.

23rd Chapter

In this chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, the glory of God, the qualities of creation, praise of yoga, Question & answer, the qualities  of the king, preaching of scriptures, reading, mutual qualities of men and women, qualities of God, explanation of Yajna and line math etc. has been discussed.

24th Chapter

In this description, the qualities of animals, birds, crawling snakes etc., wild animals-deer, creatures living in water and insects-kites etc. are described. God is the cause of all living beings and everyone has to suffer happiness and sorrow equally.

25th Chapter

Here the description of the qualities of the substances of the world, the rearing of animals, the protection of one's body parts, the prayer of God, the praise of the sacrifice, the distribution of wisdom and knowledge, the desire for religion, the qualities of the horse and its speed, the knowledge of the soul and You get the method of getting money.

26th Chapter

The results of effort, the right of all to read and listen to the Vedas, the praise of the Supreme Lord, the presentation of the learned and the truth, fire, etc., Yagya, the art of building beautiful houses, and the selection of the best place.

27th Chapter

In the 27th chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, praise of truth, acquisition of good qualities, promotion of kingdom, end of evil, increase in age, trust of friend, prevention of short death, purification, wishing for virtues, praise of fire etc. is described.

28th Chapter

In this, the qualities of "Hota", the description of the qualities of speech and soul, the duties of Hota, the explanation of Yajna and the scholars have been praised in detail.

29th Chapter

In this, description of fire, scholar, home, teacher, preacher, speech, horse, night, day, treatment of creation, protection of wise, qualities of animals etc.

30th Chapter

Description of God's form and king, "Gayatri Mahamantra" is also mentioned here in the context of God's form and prayer to God to get auspicious and pure conduct by removing his misdeeds.

31st Chapter

Explanation of the qualities of God, creation, and king.

32nd Chapter

The means of attaining God, scholar, intelligence and wealth have been explained.

33rd Chapter

Description of the qualities of fire, life, breath, day-night, sun, king, scholar, Lakshmi, Ishwar, Indra, intelligence, Varun, Vayu etc. is obtained.

34th Chapter

In the 34th chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, symptoms of mind, education, desire for learning, company of scholars, enlightenment of girls, consciousness, desire for auspicious deeds, description of God and Sun, rising in the morning, increasing age, signs of life, God The duties etc. are described.

35th Chapter

Description of behavior, movement of living being, birth-death, truth, blessings, fire, and true desire etc.

36th Chapter

Mention of prayer to God, wish for everyone's happiness, mutual friendship, purity of routine, signs of religion, faith in God etc.

37th Chapter

Description of God, Yogi, Sun, Earth, Yagya, Sanmarg, Woman, Husband, and Father, along with the rituals of diet and eating in daily life.

38th Chapter

In this, there is a mention of the adoption of auspicious qualities prevalent in the universe, nutrition of oneself and others, purification of the things of the world through Yagya, means of happiness everywhere, rituals of religion, growth of a healthy body, godly qualities, strength – growth and enjoyment etc

39th Chapter

After the death of a person, there is an exhortation to perform "funeral rituals", not to mourn the dead, etc.

40th Chapter

In the 40th chapter of Shukla Yajurveda, the description of the qualities of God, the renunciation of unrighteousness, the importance of good deeds, the subtle form of God, understanding the learned and the foolish, the teachings of the Vedas, the attainment of salvation, the understanding of inanimate consciousness, the renunciation of unrighteousness, Praise of God for religion," description of the importance of Om is found.

Krishna Yajurveda

The name of the second class of Yajurveda is Krishna Yajurveda and it has a total of four branches: –

  • Taittiriya
  • Maitreya
  • Kathaka
  • Kapisthalakatha
Of these the Taittiriya branch is the most important. The Taittiriya branch has a total of 7 kandas, 44 prapathakas, 631 anuvakas and 2198 mantras or kandikas. However, in this also the topic related to rituals has been talked about. Its 7 condos have the following description:-

Chapter of Krishna Yajurveda


1ST Kand

In the first Kand of Krishna Yajurveda, there is a description of the yagyas of Darsha (amavashya) and full moon (poornima) and the compilation of mantras for Agnishtoma, Vajpeya and Rajasuya yagyas and their method.

2nd Kand

In the second kand, description of animal-law done for various purposes, along with wishes of progeny, victory, bravery etc., description of food-law, Bhuti, Brahmavarchasva, village, enemy-victory, progress and heaven etc. is described.

3rd Kand

In this, along with the detailed description of Somayag, there are various mantras related to Jai-Vijay and national work.

4th Kand

Many questions related to Vedas and rituals have been answered in this. Like – how did the Vedas become? What is the importance of fire in Yagya? How to do fire selection? Such as the solution of questions and the method of "Ashwamedh Yagya" and its preliminary activities are described in detail.

5th Kand

Detailed arrangement of "Ashwamedha Yajna", starting from the soil of the Yajna altar.

6th Kand

Initiation of Yajman, selection of Yajna land, description of various Yagya Patras and Dakshina etc.

7th Kand

Detailed description of the activities of "Jyotishtom" Homa and Ashwamedha Yagya

Story Behind Taittiriya Shakha

A story about Yajurveda is very popular. According to a story, Maharishi Yajnavalkaya learned Yajurveda from his maternal uncle Vaishampayana. Later, due to some reason, there was a estrangement between the two, after which Maharishi Yajnavalkaya asked his disciple Vaishampayana to return the teachings given by him. Then Vaishampayan vomited all the knowledge given by him. Then by the order of Maharishi Yajnavalkaya, his own disciple ate that vomit in the form of a pheasant. For this reason Krishna branch of Krishna Yajurveda is also called Taittariya branch.

Brahman, Aranyak and Upnishad of Yajurveda

In Yajurveda, we will know about Brahmin, Aranyaka and Upanishad texts through its two parts. Both its parts are separate texts of Shukla Yajurvad and Krishna Yajurveda.

Brahman, Aranyak and Upnishad of Shukla Yajurveda:-

The Brahmin of the Shukla Yajurveda is the Shatpath Brahmin and its Aranyaka is the Brihadaranyaka. Its two Upanishads are found – Ishvasyopanishad and Brihadaranyakapanishad

Brahman, Aranyak and Upnishad of Krishna Yajurveda:-
The four Brahmans of Krishna Yajurveda are considered Taitriya, Maitrayani, Kath and Kapishthal. It has two Aranyakas, Taittiriya and Maitrayani. It has a total of 4 Upanishads which are Taittiriya Upanishad, Maitrayani-Upanishad, Kathopanishad, and Shvetasvataropanishad.

God of Yajurveda

According to the tradition of rituals, the form of Gods in Yajurveda is different from the Gods of Rigveda. The importance of Gods like Lord Vishnu, Rudra, Prajapati etc. is not as special as it is in Yajurveda. Rudra of Rigveda started being called by the name of Shiva in Yajurveda. He was considered the god of welfare, the god of water bodies, the god of gods. Similarly, the importance of Lord Vishnu increased here and he was given “Havishya” in Yagya.

In the Rigveda, “Asura” was considered a powerful deity, but in the Yajurveda, he was interpreted as an evil spirit. The worship of snakes is also described in the Yajurveda.

In the Yajurveda, Yagya became the paramount duty, whereas in Rigveda, Yagya was performed only to obtain favor from the deity. Here divine powers were called by different names whereas in Rigveda the same truth was called by different names. Shiva Sahastranam, Vishnu Sahastranam comes in the form of quotes. Here the praise of the deities is received in a simple form, their prayer is simple and the chanting of their name is sufficient for devotion. 

Psychological elements have been explained simply in Yajurveda. The dark side of life is beautifully portrayed here. Love for friend, feeling of universal brotherhood and desire for charity towards all have been mentioned here with full generosity. Here, a wish has been made to live for 100 years by considering life as a field of action and happiness and peace have been sought in all the obstacles.